By Louis Liebenberg
The Origin of Science
CyberTracker has grown from a simple hypothesis: The art of tracking may have been the origin of science. Science may have evolved more than a hundred thousand years ago with the evolution of modern hunter-gatherers. Scientific reasoning may therefore be an innate ability of the human mind. This may have far-reaching implications for indigenous knowledge, self-education and citizen science.
Born to Run
In 1990 I ran the persistence hunt with !Nate at Lone Tree in the Kalahari. The persistence hunt involves running down an antelope in the mid-day heat on an extremely hot day – chasing the antelope until it drops from heat exhaustion.
Persistence hunting may well be one of the oldest forms of hunting, practiced long before humans invented bows and arrows. A simple form of tracking may have originated with the evolution of persistence hunting about two million years ago. Over time persistence hunting and the art of tracking eventually evolved into the sophisticated levels practiced my modern hunter-gatherers.
In 2001 I worked with David Attenborough on the BBC film showing Karoha doing the Persistence Hunt. And in 2009 the persistence hunt was brought to the attention of the endurance running world in the best-selling book Born to Run by Christopher McDougall. You can watch Karoha running down a kudu in the video at
Reviving the Dying Art of Tracking
!Nate asked me to help them. They could no longer live as hunter-gathers and needed jobs. Wildlife in the Kalahari has been decimated by fences that cut off migration routes. It was no longer viable to live as hunter-gatherers. And the art of tracking was dying out. After hundreds of thousands of years, traditional tracking skills may have been lost. Yet tracking can be developed into a new science with far-reaching implications for nature conservation.
After discussions around the fire, it was decided that I should try to find a way to create jobs for trackers. Only by developing tracking into a modern profession, will tracking itself survive into the future. !Nate's father !Nam!kabe agreed that this will be good for the future. But he also had the wisdom to know that it will take a long time. This was for the younger generation, he said, it will not be for him. When he died in 1995 his exceptional tracking expertise was irretrievably lost. He was one of the last of the old generation hunters and one of the best trackers. !Nam!kabe inspired the creation of the Master Tracker certificate – the highest standard of tracking that others could aspire to.
The CyberTracker Tracker Evaluation methodology that I developed provide certification of practical tracking skills, thereby enabling trackers to get jobs in ecotourism, as rangers in anti-poaching units, in wildlife monitoring and scientific research. Tracker evaluations have since 1994 resulted in a steady growth of trackers with increasing levels of tracking skills in Africa, USA and Europe, thereby reviving tracking as a modern profession.
If the art of tracking was the origin of science, then modern-day trackers should be able to do science. However, some of the best traditional trackers in Africa cannot read or write. To overcome this problem, the CyberTracker software was developed with an icon-based user interface that enabled expert non-literate trackers to record complex geo-referenced observations on animal behaviour.
In 1996 I teamed up with Justin Steventon, a brilliant young computer science student at the University of Cape Town. The CyberTracker user interface was developed with the help of Karel Benadie, a tracker working in the Karoo National Park in South Africa. Together with fellow ranger and tracker James Minye, they tracked the highly endangered Black Rhino, recording their movements and behaviour in minute detail. Together we published a paper on rhino feeding behaviour in the journal Pachyderm. This is perhaps the first paper based on data gathered independently by two non-literate trackers, confirming a hypothesis about rhino feeding behaviour put forward by the trackers. It was a demonstration that non-literate trackers can do science.
In 1999 a CyberTracker project was initiated with the Kwe San Bushmen in the Caprivi in Namibia. And in 2008 the Western Kgalagadi Conservation Corridor Project was initiated with !Xo and /Gwi Bushmen in Botswana. Community members were employed to use the CyberTracker to conduct animal track counts. In this project !Nate and Karoha were employed in a major research project, enabling them to use their traditional tracking skills, using the CyberTracker, in a modern context.
You can watch Karoha using the CyberTracker in the video at
CyberTracker projects have also been initiated with indigenous communities in Australia, Canada and other parts of the world. Involving scientists and local communities in key areas of biodiversity, CyberTracker combines indigenous knowledge with state-of-the-art computer and satellite technology.
The CyberTracker story is captured in the powerful image of Karoha holding the CyberTracker, with his hunting bag slung over his shoulder. The image symbolises the cultural transition from hunter-gatherer to the modern computer age. Persistence hunting may be the most ancient form of hunting, possibly going back two million years, long before the invention of the bow-and-arrow or the domestication of dogs. After two million years, Karoha may well be one the last hunters who has been doing the persistence hunt. Yet of all the hunters at Lone Tree, Karoha is the most proficient in using the CyberTracker. In Karoha, one individual not only represents one of the most ancient human traditions, but also the future of tracking with computers.
Karoha's story represents the most profound cultural leap – a story that gives hope for the future: The ancient art of tracking can be revitalized and developed into a new science to monitor the impact of climate change on biodiversity.
At a more fundamental level, it shows us that anyone, regardless of their level of education, whether or not they can read or write, regardless of their cultural background, can make a contribution to science. Everyone can participate in citizen science.
A Vision of a Worldwide Environmental Monitoring Network
Climate change, pollution, habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity may have serious impacts on human welfare. To anticipate and prevent negative impacts will require ongoing long-term monitoring of all aspects of the environment.
From its origins with the Kalahari Bushmen, CyberTracker projects have been initiated to monitor gorillas in the Congo, snow leopards in the Himalayas, butterflies in Switzerland, the Sumatran rhino in Borneo, jaguars in Costa Rica, birds in the Amazon, wild horses in Mongolia, dolphins in California, marine turtles in the Pacific and whales in Antarctica.
CyberTracker is being used by indigenous communities, in national parks, scientific research, citizen science, environmental education, forestry, farming, social surveys, health surveys, crime prevention and disaster relief.
Our ultimate vision is that Smartphone users worldwide will use CyberTracker to capture observations on a daily basis. Data streaming into the Internet (the Cloud) will make it possible to visualise changes in the global ecosystem in real time.
Ansell, Shuan and Jennifer Koening. 2011. CyberTracker: An integral management tool used by rangers in the Djelk Indigenous Protected Area, central Arnhem Land, Australia. Ecological Management & Restoration. Vol. 12 No 1 April 2011.
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Ens, E.J. 2012. Monitoring Outcomes of Environmental Service Provision in Low Socio-economic Indigenous Australia Using Innovative CyberTracker Technology. Conservation and Society 10(1): 42-52, 2012
Liebenberg, Louis. 2013. Tracking Science: The Origin of Scientific Thinking in Our Paleolithic Ancestors. Skeptic Magazine. Vol. 18. No. 3.
Liebenberg, Louis. 2013. The Origin of Science. Cape Town: CyberTracker.
Liebenberg, Louis. 1990. The Art of Tracking: The Origin of Science. Cape Town: David Philip Publishers.
Liebenberg, Louis. 2006. Persistence Hunting by Modern Hunter-Gatherers, Current Anthropology. 47:5.
Liebenberg, Louis. 2008. The Relevance of Persistence Hunting to Human Evolution, Journal of Human Evolution. 55, 1156-1159.
Liebenberg, Louis, Lindsay Steventon, Karel Benadie and James Minye. 1999. Rhino Tracking in the Karoo National Park Pachyderm, Number 27.
Liebenberg, Louis, Edwin Blake, Lindsay Steventon, Karel Benadie and James Minye. 1998. Integrating Traditional Knowledge with Computer Science for the Conservation of Biodiversity. Paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Hunting and Gathering Societies, Osaka, Japan, October 1998.
Liebenberg, Louis. 2003. A New Environmental Monitoring Methodology.
Liebenberg, Louis. 2010. The Western Kgalagadi Conservation Corridor Project.
Mayes, Simon. 1999. CyberTracker Applications in Namibia.