Science Community Science

Tracking Science

In contrast to Participatory Community Science, Tracking Science is more inclusive and may involve the publication of peer reviewed papers, in scientific journals, of original data and/or hypotheses. The independent tracking scientist may work independently, often alone with no funding, and do not necessarily have formal academic qualifications. Tracking Science also includes Indigenous Knowledge and does not exclude immigrants. Professional scientists may only become involved during the peer review process when a paper or book is presented for publication. Some of the best known independent tracking scientists in history include Charles Darwin, Rachel Carson, Jane Goodall and Albert Einstein.

Further Reading

Liebenberg, L., //Ao, . /Am ., Lombard, M., Shermer, M., Xhukwe, . /Uase ., Biesele, M., //xao, D., Carruthers, P., Kxao, . ≠Oma ., Hansson, S.O., Langwane, H. (Karoha) ., Elbroch, L.M., /Ui, N., Keeping, D., Humphrey, G., Newman, G., G/aq’o, . /Ui ., Steventon, J., Kashe, N., Stevenson, R., Benadie, K., du Plessis, P., Minye, J., /Kxunta, . /Ui ., Ludwig, B., Daqm, . ≠Oma ., Louw, M., Debe, D. and Voysey, M., 2021. Tracking Science: An Alternative for Those Excluded by Citizen Science. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 6(1), p.6. DOI:

Liebenberg, Louis. 2015. Citizen science: creating an inclusive, global network for conservation. The Guardian.

Liebenberg, L., et al., 2016. Smartphone Icon User Interface design for non-literate trackers and its implications for an inclusive citizen science, Biological Conservation,

To get involved in Community Science you can find projects here: